To find all copies of one piece of your work online, you need to learn strategies for effective web searching. The one most important tip is this: don't search for words that describe an article, search for phrases that are contained in that article - and not in anyone else's.
If you are searching for web pages that may contain rip-offs of one of your photos, that means that you should be searching for words that would appear together in a decent caption for that photo, and nowhere else.
First, of course, you will look for your own name, in case the rippers-off have been silly enough to include it.
You almost always want to put names in quote marks, thus -
- so that the search engine will find only web pages with that name - "Jane Smith" together as a phrase - not those that merely mention a Charles Smith and a Jane Dickens.
Leave it out!
If you are unfortunate enough to have namesakes widely referenced on the web, you may be able to exclude them. For example in Google Jane Smith could exclude a namesake who sells quilting patterns:
- the minus sign excludes pages containing either of the words "quilt" or "quilting". (The minus sign is the same as the hyphen on a computer keyboard! You will want to use your own name, not Jane's.)
"Jane Smith" -quilt -quilting
This minus-sign convention appears to work at www.altavista.com too. In other search engines you want to head for the "advanced search" option, if there is one, and look for the place to enter words that "must not be included" or to search for pages that include "none of these words".
Narrowing it down
Or you could add extra words that narrow the search results down to your work. Think laterally. If Jane Smith is looking for book reviews,
may be a very good search, since many reviews will contain the ISBN of the book. They may not contain the word "review".
"Jane Smith" ISBN
Note the general principle: the more words you put into a search form, the fewer web pages you get back. That's because the search engine will try to find you pages that contain all the words.
Of course, it's better if you had the foresight to start doing your journalism under a unique name. The actors' union Equity insists that no two members share a stage name for a reason.
Far better than searching for your name, though, is searching for the most unusual phrase in an article.
If, for example, you've reviewed a book entitled "Logic Made Easy", a search for that will produce everything everyone's posted to the web about it, plus every page that uses this phrase about anything else. But a search for the phrase
(with quote marks) will produce that article, and only that article. (And of course this page.)
"cooked up by envious environmentalists"
Life beyond Google™
Actually, www.google.com didn't at first find it, using that search phrase. You need to use other search engines as well.
Google's advantage is a patented scheme that frequently displays the web pages that you want first, before less-relevant pages. But www.altavista.com and www.alltheweb.com both include more web pages from many sites than Google does, as does www.yahoo.com - and if you search cleverly, as described here, you can easily outdo Google's cleverness.
You could also try www.a9.com - though it doesn't seem to have the "advanced search" facility that allows you to specify words that the pages returned must not contain.
If your article doesn't include any improbable phrases, you can search for an improbable combination of words or phrases:
finds the above review, and only it (and this), using Google.
cooked "envious environmentalists"
The general principle is, again: search for a combination of words and phrases that should appear in the web page you are looking for, and no other. Looking for a different piece, the bizarre search
produced only the original review when we first checked in Google, but www.altavista.com turns up at least five "web reprints".
"bicameral mind" "bed-covers"
By the way, there's little point searching for a phrase of more than about 10 words, at least initially. Most search engines will ignore excess words and some may get confused.
TIP: Given a page of search results, Windows users can click with the right mouse button on the links and Mac users can hold down the Control key while clicking on it. A menu pops up and you can select either "open in new window" or "open in new tab" from it. This makes it easy to keep your place in the search results.
You should soon acquire the skill of scanning the 20-word extract from a page and its URL to see whether it's worth a quick flip over to look at it. (Like learning to swim, this skill is hard to describe in writing.)
TIP: Google provides an alerts service. Once you have found the perfect search term to find copies of an article, you can ask Google to email you every time a new matching page shows up.
Scanning individual sites
Some sites have useful search facilities of their own. But you can often get better results using the facility Google provides to scan a particular site, with searches such as these increasingly specific examples:
The rule when you specify
site: is that immediately after it you type part of the URL - up to and including the
.ac.uk or whatever - and then optionally add part of the stuff after the "slash" - for example
/news and a space and more words. AltaVista/Yahoo Advanced Search offers a similar facility - enter this information under
Location / by URL - and once again it returns more results.
The National Union of Journalists must not, can not and would not wish to dictate rates or terms of engagement to members or to editors. The information presented here is for guidance and as an aid to equitable negotiation only.
Suggestions apply to contracts governed by UK law only. In any event, nothing here should be construed as legal advice.